The Agriculture sector as other sector depend much on Land as Farmers, pastorals and industries are depend on it. The development of extractive industries and increase of foreign investment in Agriculture Nevertheless the land use systems and climatic changes has made the productive land to be a very Land is often a poor person’s most valuable asset.
It is estimated the Countries like Tanzania has a very huge of land which is arable for Agriculture and related farm activities. Most of Family farming Land is very important resource in any of the economic activities. In recent years the pressure for Land increased due to population growth.
Land provides all those it needed by human, animals and Plants to survive. Buildings infrastructure are It provides “tenure security” or legal protection against forced evictions; it provides critically important collateral for access to credit; and it provides a means of income and food security for the millions of farmers in Africa.
In many parts of Tanzania many Farmers yields have been stagnant due to a number of issues including a lack of open and effective public spending, inadequate support for women, poor land governance, few resources for pro-poor research and extension services as well as weak links in agriculture value chains which create few opportunities for responsible private sector and youth attraction to tap into Agriculture opportunities.
Many issues has been raised and the main is that of LAND GRABING where the powerful and rich people with their companies are taking and own a larger piece of land. Proponents of these deals argue that they can increase food production and help farmers gain improved agricultural skills.
Recently there has been a worse conflict between Farmers and Pastoralists and it cost some peoples lives. Many of these people who are in conflict are suffered while finding the best way to their livelihoods and feeding their livestock while farmers are complaining that pastoralists use to graze in their crops in the field.
There are also a number of reported cases that some villages or families have been displaced from their home while giving a room for certain investor to occupy a large piece of land.
However it is said that the investors with a hundred or thousands of acres make local people move by force without the right place to go can real survive the situations as in Kiteto, Simanjiro, Mbarali even in SAGCOT area.
Some of the investors face the challenges due to inadequate experience for competitive experience working in these conditions which create inefficiency in their investments.
The main claimed reason for all these to occur is existing of weak regulation frameworks in protection of land rights which may mean that; local populations will not be compensated adequately when forced off their land.
Many of the said “land grab” deals are alleged due to most of negotiations to sell and give property/ land lease to investors are done secretly and with no consultation with local indigenous residents.
The situation created where the flourish of companies which are foreign owned going to African rural areas taking by buying a large pieces of land, misplace people, or force people to leave whether by force or offering them a large amount of money associated with corrupt leaders have created pressure of land in many African countries include Kenya and now Tanzania will be.
The situation have created a face that some areas which were previous not sold that expensive are now very expensive due to promotion done through different projects like SAGCOT, BRN and now the exploration and beginning of extraction of oil and gas created much pressure of land over areas around the targeted localities which change the system of lives of so many people.
No one around those communities is thinking of investing heavily in Agriculture ue to the popularity news that extraction of Oil and Gas will then created many jobs for people around the areas. This is also due to the fact that small holder farmer have been neglected by decision makers especially politicians who just use them during political campaign but don’t fulfill their promises to create favorable condition for their family farming enterprises.
SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO ADDRESS ISSUES OVER LAND
Governments with the help of civil society organizations and Non State Actors have an important role to play in improving land rights, which could help protect citizens’ assets, help farmers grow more food, and reduce levels of poverty.
There is a need of establishing recognized land rights can be an important step towards protecting communities from large-scale dispossession thus farmers with secure access to their land are more likely to use better farming practices that preserve the health of the soil, which encourages higher resistance against crop diseases and pests.
Demarcation and monitoring of specific land and areas for irrigation, settlement, national parks, industries, open space and its land use planning can help also to reduce the pressure over land as well as land grabing because all the areas will be publically known and people have to get access to after government provide a well framework guided by laws and regulations.
Mapping which can be done through advancements in technology such as satellites, Google Earth, and global positioning systems (GPS) have made land surveys more efficient, cost-effective, and less prone to corruption by local officials, which can help governments to improve land tenure systems.
While every context and locale is different, the following policy recommendations can provide guidance on how to ensure equitable access to one of Africa’s most important natural resources.
Appart from that there is a need to improve tenure security and register all communally owned land which will provide mandate for the specific group of people over the land use planning and if government is involved as a regulatory bodies.
But most important thing is to strengthen land administration systems, processes and infrastructures which will give the rural poor access to other social services hence improve their well being by selling what the produce, store, transport and communication.
Develop a system to resolve land disputes, through the legal systems. It’s also important to develop a universal framework for companies to ensure responsible private sector investment.
Not all large-scale land acquisitions are land grabs, and many investments can help farmers by giving them access to new markets and providing advanced training and management advice.
While governments have the UN’s Voluntary Guidelines on the responsible governance of land tenure as a reference, an equivalent does not yet exist for companies, although the Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment – developed by the FAO, IFAD, and the World Bank – are progressing through the consultation process.
Initiatives to increase responsible private sector investment in agriculture, particularly the G8’s New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, must adhere to reasonable and realistic safeguards – developed with input from other key stakeholders – to protect local communities and the environment.
Year 2014 is an opportunity to strengthening and launches initiatives to develop the Agriculture sector and promote food security. During the 66th session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, 2014 was formally declared to be the “International Year of Family Farming” (IYFF), also AU declared 2014 to be the year of Agriculture and Food Security in Africa. It is through this year that Youth and women voices through stakeholder and Holistic approaches suppose to advocate for the need for strategic investment in Agriculture as Farm Business as a way to self employment and livelihood option while addressing the issues of accountability, food security, agriculture innovation and entrepreneurship for youth and women who are to be primary stakeholders and beneficiaries.